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Liberalizm

Liberalizmazadlıq, idarə edilənin razılığıqanun qarşısında bərabərlik anlayışlarına əsaslanan siyasimənəvi fəlsəfə. Liberallar müxtəlif fikirləri müdafiə edir, ancaq onlar əsasən azad bazar, azad ticarət, məhdud dövlət, fərdi hüquqlar (mülki hüquqlarinsan hüquqları buna daxil olmaqla), kapitalizm, demokratiya, sekulyarizm, gender bərabərliyi, irqi bərabərlik, internasionalizm, söz azadlığı, mətbuat azadlığıdin azadlığını dəstəkləyirlər. Liberalizmə ən çox uyğun gələn siyasi rəng sarıdır.

Liberalizm Maarifçilik dövründə ayrı bir siyasi hərəkata çevrilmişdir. Bu, həmin dövrün Qərb filosofları və iqtisadçıları arasında olduqca populyar idi. Liberalizm irsi üstünlük normalarını, dövlət dinini, mütləq monarxiyanı, kralların ilahi hüququnu və ənənəvi mühafizəkarlığı aradan qaldırmış, əvəzinə isə nümayəndəli demokratiyahüququn aliliyini təqdim etmişdir. Liberallar həmçinin, merkantilist siyasətə, kral monopoliyalarına və ticarətə qoyulan digər maneələrə son qoymuş, azad bazar və azad ticarəti populyarlaşdırmışdır. Filosof Con Lokk adətən liberalizmin banisi hesab edilir. O, sosial müqavilə anlayışında irəli sürmüşdür ki, hər bir şəxsin həyat, azadlıq və mülk haqqında təbii hüququ var və dövlətlər bu hüquqları tapdalamamalıdır. Böyük Britaniya liberal ənənəsi demokratiyanın genişləndirilməsini vurğulasa da, Fransa liberalizmi avtoritarizmin rəddini vurğulayır və milliyətçilik ilə yaxından əlaqəlidir.

1688-ci ildə baş vermiş Şanlı inqilabın, 1776-cı ildə baş vermiş Amerika inqilabının və 1789-cu ildə baş vermiş Böyük Fransa inqilabının rəhbərləri kral tiraniyasını aradan qaldırmağa haqq qazandırmaq üçün liberal fəlsəfədən istifadə etmişdir. Liberalizm Böyük Fransa inqilabından sonra sürətli şəkildə yayılmağa başlamışdır. XIX əsrdə AvropaLatın Amerikasında liberal hökumətlərin formalaşmış, Birləşmiş Ştatlardakı respublikaçılıq hərəkatına köklənmişdir. Termin Viktoriya dövrü Böyük Britaniyasında siyasi müəssisələrin tənqidi, xalq adından elmə və səbəbə yönəlmə kimi qəbul edilirdi. XIX əsrin axırları və XX əsrin əvvəllərində Osmanlı imperiyasında, o cümlədən Orta Şərqdə güclənən liberal cərəyan TənzimatƏl-Nəhda kimi islahat dövrlərinin baş verməsinə, eləcə də konstitusionalizm, milliyətçilik və sekulyarizmin yüksəlməsinə gətirib çıxarmışdır. Bu dəyişikliklər digər amillər ilə birlikdə İslam daxilində böhran hissi yaratmışdır, hansı ki, bu günə kimi davam edir və İslam dirçəlişçiliyinin yaranmasına səbəb olmuşdur. 1920-ci illərdən əvvəl liberalizmin əsas ideoloji rəqibləri kommunizm, konservatizmsosializm olmuşdur, ancaq bu siyasi fəlsəfə daha sonra liberalizmin yeni rəqiblərinə çevrilən faşizm, nasizmmarkizm-leninizm ilə böyük ideoloji qarşıdurmalar yaşamışdır. Liberal ideyalar XX əsrdə daha güclü bir şəkildə yayılmışdır, xüsusilə də Qərbi Avropada. Bunun səbəbi liberal demokratiyaların Birinci Dünya müharibəsində və İkinci Dünya müharibəsində qalib tərəf olmasıdır.

AvropaŞimali Amerikada sosial liberalizmin əsasının qoyulmasının sosial rifah dövləti anlayışının genişlənməsində böyük rolu olmuşdur. Liberal partiyalar indiki dövrdə də dünya boyunca əhəmiyyətli qüvvə və təsirə malikdir. Buna baxmayaraq, AfrikaAsiyada liberalizmə qarşı çıxılır. Müasir cəmiyyətin fundamental elementləri liberalizmə əsaslanır. Erkən liberalizm dalğaları iqtisadi fərdiyyətçilik anlayışını populyarlaşdırmış, eyni zamanda konstitusiyalı hökumətparlament səlahiyyətinin əhəmiyyətini artırmışdır. Liberallar söz azadlığı, birləşmək azadlığı, müstəqil və ictimai məhkəməaristokratik üstünlüklərin ləğvi kimi indiki dövrdə böyük əhəmiyyət daşıyan fərdi azadlıqları adi hala salmışdır. Müasir liberalizmin növbəti maarifçilik və mübarizə dalğaları mülki hüquqların böyüdülməsini hədəfləmişdir. Liberallar mülki hüquqların təmin edilməsi dalğası zamanı gender və irqi bərabərliyi müdafiə etmişdir. XX əsrdə baş vermiş lobal mülki hüquq hərəkatları hər iki hədəfdə böyük nailiyyətlər əldə etmişdir.

  1. Bu, adətən ABŞ liberalizmi adlanır.
  1. "liberalism In general, the belief that it is the aim of politics to preserve individual rights and to maximize freedom of choice." Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics, Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan, Third edition 2009, ISBN 978-0-19-920516-5.
  2. "political rationalism, hostility to autocracy, cultural distaste for conservatism and for tradition in general, tolerance, and […] individualism". John Dunn. Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future (1993). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43755-4.
  3. "With a nod to Robert Trivers' definition of altruistic behaviour" (Trivers, 1971. səh. 35), Satoshi Kanazawa defines liberalism (as opposed to conservatism) as "the genuine concern for the welfare of genetically unrelated others and the willingness to contribute larger proportions of private resources for the welfare of such others" (Kanazawa, 2010. səh. 38).
  4. . 7 February 2011 tarixində arxivləşdirilib. İstifadə tarixi:20 March 2015.
  5. Nader Hashemi (2009). . Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-971751-4. Liberal democracy requires a form of secularism to sustain itself
  6. Kathleen G. Donohue (19 December 2003). . Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7426-0. İstifadə tarixi:31 December 2007. Three of them – freedom from fear, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion – have long been fundamental to liberalism.
  7. . The Economist. 1996. İstifadə tarixi:31 December 2007. For all three share a belief in the liberal society as defined above: a society that provides constitutional government (rule by law, not by men) and freedom of religion, thought, expression and economic interaction; a society in which [...]
  8. Sehldon S. Wolin (2004). . Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11977-9. İstifadə tarixi:31 December 2007. The most frequently cited rights included freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion, property, and procedural rights
  9. Edwin Brown Firmage; Bernard G. Weiss; John Woodland Welch (1990). . Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-0-931464-39-3. İstifadə tarixi:31 December 2007. There is no need to expound the foundations and principles of modern liberalism, which emphasises the values of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion
  10. Lalor, John Joseph (1883). . Nabu Press. səh. . İstifadə tarixi:31 December 2007. Democracy attaches itself to a form of government: liberalism, to liberty and guarantees of liberty. The two may agree; they are not contradictory, but they are neither identical, nor necessarily connected. In the moral order, liberalism is the liberty to think, recognised and practiced. This is primordial liberalism, as the liberty to think is itself the first and noblest of liberties. Man would not be free in any degree or in any sphere of action, if he were not a thinking being endowed with consciousness. The freedom of worship, the freedom of education, and the freedom of the press are derived the most directly from the freedom to think.
  11. Adams, Sean; Morioka, Noreen; Stone, Terry Lee (2006). . Gloucester, Mass.: Rockport Publishers. . ISBN 159253192X. OCLC .
  12. Kumar, Rohit Vishal; Joshi, Radhika (October–December 2006). "Colour, Colour Everywhere: In Marketing Too". SCMS Journal of Indian Management. 3 (4): 40–46. ISSN . SSRN.
  13. Cassel-Picot, Muriel "The Liberal Democrats and the Green Cause: From Yellow to Green" in Leydier, Gilles and Martin, Alexia (2013) Environmental Issues in Political Discourse in Britain and Ireland. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. . ISBN 9781443852838
  14. Gould, p. 3.
  15. "All mankind […] being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions", John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
  16. Kirchner, p. 3.
  17. Steven Pincus (2009).. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15605-8. İstifadə tarixi:7 February 2013.
  18. Milan Zafirovski (2007). . Brill. səh. 237. ISBN 978-9004160521.
  19. Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2017). "The Politics of Cognition: Liberalism and the Evolutionary Origins of Victorian Education". British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (4): 677–699. doi:. PMID .
  20. Koerner, Kirk F. (1985). . London: Routledge. ISBN 9780429279577.
  21. Conway, Martin (2014). . In Gosewinkel, Dieter (ed.). Anti-liberal Europe: A Neglected Story of Europeanization. Berghahn Books. səh. 184. ISBN 9781782384267. Liberalism, liberal values and liberal institutions formed an integral part of that process of European consolidation. Fifteen years after the end of the Second World War, the liberal and democratic identity of Western Europe had been reinforced on almost all sides by the definition of the West as a place of freedom. Set against the oppression in the Communist East, by the slow development of a greater understanding of the moral horror of Nazism, and by the engagement of intellectuals and others with the new states (and social and political systems) emerging in the non-European world to the South
  22. by Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (1956) from: The Politics of Hope (Boston: Riverside Press, 1962). "Liberalism in the U.S. usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any other country, save possibly Britain."
  23. Worell, p. 470.
"Liberalizm" portalı
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Liberalizm
liberalizm, ideyalarazadlıqkapitalizm, bazar, iqtisadiyyatıinsan, hüquqlarıhüquqi, dövlətictimai, müqaviləbərabərlik, millətplüralizm, demokratiyaideyadaxili, hərakatlarlibertarianlıqneoliberalizmsosial, liberalizm, şablon, azadlıq, idarə, edilənin, razılığı, . Liberalizm Dil Izle Redakte LiberalizmIdeyalarAzadliqKapitalizm Bazar iqtisadiyyatiInsan huquqlariHuquqi dovletIctimai muqavileBeraberlik MilletPluralizm DemokratiyaIdeyadaxili herakatlarLibertarianliqNeoliberalizmSosial liberalizm sablon Liberalizm azadliq idare edilenin raziligi ve qanun qarsisinda beraberlik anlayislarina esaslanan siyasi ve menevi felsefe 1 2 3 Liberallar muxtelif fikirleri mudafie edir ancaq onlar esasen azad bazar azad ticaret mehdud dovlet ferdi huquqlar mulki huquqlar ve insan huquqlari buna daxil olmaqla kapitalizm demokratiya sekulyarizm gender beraberliyi irqi beraberlik internasionalizm soz azadligi metbuat azadligi ve din azadligini destekleyirler 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Liberalizme en cox uygun gelen siyasi reng saridir 11 12 13 Liberalizm Maarifcilik dovrunde ayri bir siyasi herekata cevrilmisdir Bu hemin dovrun Qerb filosoflari ve iqtisadcilari arasinda olduqca populyar idi Liberalizm irsi ustunluk normalarini dovlet dinini mutleq monarxiyani krallarin ilahi huququnu ve enenevi muhafizekarligi aradan qaldirmis evezine ise numayendeli demokratiya ve huququn aliliyini teqdim etmisdir Liberallar hemcinin merkantilist siyasete kral monopoliyalarina ve ticarete qoyulan diger maneelere son qoymus azad bazar ve azad ticareti populyarlasdirmisdir 14 Filosof Con Lokk adeten liberalizmin banisi hesab edilir O sosial muqavile anlayisinda ireli surmusdur ki her bir sexsin heyat azadliq ve mulk haqqinda tebii huququ var ve dovletler bu huquqlari tapdalamamalidir 15 Boyuk Britaniya liberal enenesi demokratiyanin genislendirilmesini vurgulasa da Fransa liberalizmi avtoritarizmin reddini vurgulayir ve milliyetcilik ile yaxindan elaqelidir 16 1688 ci ilde bas vermis Sanli inqilabin 17 1776 ci ilde bas vermis Amerika inqilabinin ve 1789 cu ilde bas vermis Boyuk Fransa inqilabinin rehberleri kral tiraniyasini aradan qaldirmaga haqq qazandirmaq ucun liberal felsefeden istifade etmisdir Liberalizm Boyuk Fransa inqilabindan sonra suretli sekilde yayilmaga baslamisdir XIX esrde Avropa ve Latin Amerikasinda liberal hokumetlerin formalasmis Birlesmis Statlardaki respublikaciliq herekatina koklenmisdir 18 Termin Viktoriya dovru Boyuk Britaniyasinda siyasi muessiselerin tenqidi xalq adindan elme ve sebebe yonelme kimi qebul edilirdi 19 XIX esrin axirlari ve XX esrin evvellerinde Osmanli imperiyasinda o cumleden Orta Serqde guclenen liberal cereyan Tenzimat ve El Nehda kimi islahat dovrlerinin bas vermesine elece de konstitusionalizm milliyetcilik ve sekulyarizmin yukselmesine getirib cixarmisdir Bu deyisiklikler diger amiller ile birlikde Islam daxilinde bohran hissi yaratmisdir hansi ki bu gune kimi davam edir ve Islam dircelisciliyinin yaranmasina sebeb olmusdur 1920 ci illerden evvel liberalizmin esas ideoloji reqibleri kommunizm konservatizm ve sosializm olmusdur 20 ancaq bu siyasi felsefe daha sonra liberalizmin yeni reqiblerine cevrilen fasizm nasizm ve markizm leninizm ile boyuk ideoloji qarsidurmalar yasamisdir Liberal ideyalar XX esrde daha guclu bir sekilde yayilmisdir xususile de Qerbi Avropada Bunun sebebi liberal demokratiyalarin Birinci Dunya muharibesinde ve Ikinci Dunya muharibesinde qalib teref olmasidir 21 Avropa ve Simali Amerikada sosial liberalizmin a esasinin qoyulmasinin sosial rifah dovleti anlayisinin genislenmesinde boyuk rolu olmusdur 22 Liberal partiyalar indiki dovrde de dunya boyunca ehemiyyetli quvve ve tesire malikdir Buna baxmayaraq Afrika ve Asiyada liberalizme qarsi cixilir Muasir cemiyyetin fundamental elementleri liberalizme esaslanir Erken liberalizm dalgalari iqtisadi ferdiyyetcilik anlayisini populyarlasdirmis eyni zamanda konstitusiyali hokumet ve parlament selahiyyetinin ehemiyyetini artirmisdir 14 Liberallar soz azadligi birlesmek azadligi musteqil ve ictimai mehkeme ve aristokratik ustunluklerin legvi kimi indiki dovrde boyuk ehemiyyet dasiyan ferdi azadliqlari adi hala salmisdir 14 Muasir liberalizmin novbeti maarifcilik ve mubarize dalgalari mulki huquqlarin boyudulmesini hedeflemisdir 23 Liberallar mulki huquqlarin temin edilmesi dalgasi zamani gender ve irqi beraberliyi mudafie etmisdir XX esrde bas vermis lobal mulki huquq herekatlari her iki hedefde boyuk nailiyyetler elde etmisdir Qeydler Redakte Bu adeten ABS liberalizmi adlanir Istinadlar Redakte liberalism In general the belief that it is the aim of politics to preserve individual rights and to maximize freedom of choice Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics Iain McLean and Alistair McMillan Third edition 2009 ISBN 978 0 19 920516 5 political rationalism hostility to autocracy cultural distaste for conservatism and for tradition in general tolerance and individualism John Dunn Western Political Theory in the Face of the Future 1993 Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 43755 4 With a nod to Robert Trivers definition of altruistic behaviour Trivers 1971 seh 35 Satoshi Kanazawa defines liberalism as opposed to conservatism as the genuine concern for the welfare of genetically unrelated others and the willingness to contribute larger proportions of private resources for the welfare of such others Kanazawa 2010 seh 38 The Liberal Agenda for the 21st Century 7 February 2011 tarixinde orijinalindan arxivlesdirilib Istifade tarixi 20 March 2015 Nader Hashemi 2009 Islam Secularism and Liberal Democracy Toward a Democratic Theory for Muslim Societies Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 971751 4 Liberal democracy requires a form of secularism to sustain itself Kathleen G Donohue 19 December 2003 Freedom from Want American Liberalism and the Idea of the Consumer New Studies in American Intellectual and Cultural History Johns Hopkins University Press ISBN 978 0 8018 7426 0 Istifade tarixi 31 December 2007 Three of them freedom from fear freedom of speech and freedom of religion have long been fundamental to liberalism The Economist Volume 341 Issues 7995 7997 The Economist 1996 Istifade tarixi 31 December 2007 For all three share a belief in the liberal society as defined above a society that provides constitutional government rule by law not by men and freedom of religion thought expression and economic interaction a society in which Sehldon S Wolin 2004 Politics and Vision Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0 691 11977 9 Istifade tarixi 31 December 2007 The most frequently cited rights included freedom of speech press assembly religion property and procedural rights Edwin Brown Firmage Bernard G Weiss John Woodland Welch 1990 Religion and Law Biblical Judaic and Islamic Perspectives Eisenbrauns ISBN 978 0 931464 39 3 Istifade tarixi 31 December 2007 There is no need to expound the foundations and principles of modern liberalism which emphasises the values of freedom of conscience and freedom of religion Lalor John Joseph 1883 Cyclopaedia of Political Science Political Economy and of the Political History of the United States Nabu Press seh 760 Istifade tarixi 31 December 2007 Democracy attaches itself to a form of government liberalism to liberty and guarantees of liberty The two may agree they are not contradictory but they are neither identical nor necessarily connected In the moral order liberalism is the liberty to think recognised and practiced This is primordial liberalism as the liberty to think is itself the first and noblest of liberties Man would not be free in any degree or in any sphere of action if he were not a thinking being endowed with consciousness The freedom of worship the freedom of education and the freedom of the press are derived the most directly from the freedom to think Adams Sean Morioka Noreen Stone Terry Lee 2006 Color Design Workbook A Real World Guide to Using Color in Graphic Design Gloucester Mass Rockport Publishers 86 ISBN 159253192X OCLC 60393965 Kumar Rohit Vishal Joshi Radhika October December 2006 Colour Colour Everywhere In Marketing Too SCMS Journal of Indian Management 3 4 40 46 ISSN 0973 3167 SSRN 969272 Cassel Picot Muriel The Liberal Democrats and the Green Cause From Yellow to Green in Leydier Gilles and Martin Alexia 2013 Environmental Issues in Political Discourse in Britain and Ireland Cambridge Scholars Publishing p 105 ISBN 9781443852838 1 2 3 Gould p 3 All mankind being all equal and independent no one ought to harm another in his life health liberty or possessions John Locke Second Treatise of Government Kirchner p 3 Steven Pincus 2009 1688 The First Modern Revolution Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 15605 8 Istifade tarixi 7 February 2013 Milan Zafirovski 2007 Liberal Modernity and Its Adversaries Freedom Liberalism and Anti Liberalism in the 21st Century Brill seh 237 ISBN 978 9004160521 Eddy Matthew Daniel 2017 The Politics of Cognition Liberalism and the Evolutionary Origins of Victorian Education British Journal for the History of Science 50 4 677 699 doi 10 1017 S0007087417000863 PMID 29019300 Koerner Kirk F 1985 Liberalism and Its Critics London Routledge ISBN 9780429279577 Conway Martin 2014 The Limits of an Anti liberal Europe In Gosewinkel Dieter ed Anti liberal Europe A Neglected Story of Europeanization Berghahn Books seh 184 ISBN 9781782384267 Liberalism liberal values and liberal institutions formed an integral part of that process of European consolidation Fifteen years after the end of the Second World War the liberal and democratic identity of Western Europe had been reinforced on almost all sides by the definition of the West as a place of freedom Set against the oppression in the Communist East by the slow development of a greater understanding of the moral horror of Nazism and by the engagement of intellectuals and others with the new states and social and political systems emerging in the non European world to the South Liberalism in America A Note for Europeans by Arthur M Schlesinger Jr 1956 from The Politics of Hope Boston Riverside Press 1962 Liberalism in the U S usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any other country save possibly Britain Worell p 470 Edebiyyat Redakte Liberalizm portaliAdams Ian Ideology and politics in Britain today Manchester Manchester University Press 1998 ISBN 0 7190 5056 1 Alterman Eric Why We re Liberals New York Viking Adult 2008 ISBN 0 670 01860 0 Ameringer Charles Political parties of the Americas 1980s to 1990s Westport Greenwood Publishing Group 1992 ISBN 0 313 27418 5 Amin Samir The liberal virus permanent war and the americanization of the world New York Monthly Review Press 2004 Antoninus Marcus Aurelius The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus New York Oxford University Press 2008 ISBN 0 19 954059 4 Arnold N Scott Imposing values an essay on liberalism and regulation New York Oxford University Press 2009 ISBN 0 495 50112 3 Auerbach Alan and Kotlikoff Laurence Macroeconomics Cambridge MIT Press 1998 ISBN 0 262 01170 0 Barzilai Gad Communities and Law Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities University of Michigan Press 2003 ISBN 978 0 472 03079 8 Bell Duncan What is Liberalism Political Theory 42 6 2014 Brack Duncan and Randall Ed eds Dictionary of Liberal Thought London Politico s Publishing 2007 ISBN 978 1 84275 167 1 George Brandis Tom Harley amp Donald Markwell editors Liberals Face the Future Essays on Australian Liberalism Melbourne Oxford University Press 1984 Alan Bullock amp Maurice Shock editors The Liberal Tradition From Fox to Keynes Oxford Clarendon Press 1967 Chodos Robert et al The unmaking of Canada the hidden theme in Canadian history since 1945 Halifax James Lorimer amp Company 1991 ISBN 1 55028 337 5 Coker Christopher Twilight of the West Boulder Westview Press 1998 ISBN 0 8133 3368 7 Colomer Josep Maria Great Empires Small Nations New York Routledge 2007 ISBN 0 415 43775 X Cook Richard The Grand Old Man Whitefish Kessinger Publishing 2004 ISBN 1 4191 6449 X Delaney Tim The march of unreason science democracy and the new fundamentalism New York Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 0 19 280485 5 Diamond Larry The Spirit of Democracy New York Macmillan 2008 ISBN 0 8050 7869 X Dobson John Bulls Bears Boom and Bust Santa Barbara ABC CLIO 2006 ISBN 1 85109 553 5 Dorrien Gary The making of American liberal theology Louisville Westminster John Knox Press 2001 ISBN 0 664 22354 0 Farr Thomas World of Faith and Freedom New York Oxford University Press US 2008 ISBN 0 19 517995 1 Falco Maria Feminist interpretations of Mary Wollstonecraft State College Penn State Press 1996 ISBN 0 271 01493 8 Fawcett Edmund Liberalism The Life of an Idea Princeton NJ Princeton University Press 2014 ISBN 978 0 691 15689 7 Flamm Michael and Steigerwald David Debating the 1960s liberal conservative and radical perspectives Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield 2008 ISBN 0 7425 2212 1 Frey Linda and Frey Marsha The French Revolution Westport Greenwood Press 2004 ISBN 0 313 32193 0 Gallagher Michael et al Representative government in modern Europe New York McGraw Hill 2001 ISBN 0 07 232267 5 Gifford Rob China Road A Journey into the Future of a Rising Power Random House 2008 ISBN 0 8129 7524 3 Godwin Kenneth et al School choice tradeoffs liberty equity and diversity Austin University of Texas Press 2002 ISBN 0 292 72842 5 Gould Andrew Origins of liberal dominance Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press 1999 ISBN 0 472 11015 2 Gray John Liberalism Minneapolis University of Minnesota Press 1995 ISBN 0 8166 2801 7 Grigsby Ellen Analyzing Politics An Introduction to Political Science Florence Cengage Learning 2008 ISBN 0 495 50112 3 Gross Jonathan Byron the erotic liberal Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers Inc 2001 ISBN 0 7425 1162 6 Hafner Danica and Ramet Sabrina Democratic transition in Slovenia value transformation education and media College Station Texas A amp M University Press 2006 ISBN 1 58544 525 8 Handelsman Michael Culture and Customs of Ecuador Westport Greenwood Press 2000 ISBN 0 313 30244 8 Hartz Louis The liberal tradition in America New York Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 1955 ISBN 0 15 651269 6 Hodge Carl Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism 1800 1944 Westport Greenwood Publishing Group 2008 ISBN 0 313 33406 4 Jensen Pamela Grande Finding a new feminism rethinking the woman question for liberal democracy Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield 1996 ISBN 0 8476 8189 0 Johnson Paul The Renaissance A Short History New York Modern Library 2002 ISBN 0 8129 6619 8 Karatnycky Adrian Freedom in the World Piscataway Transaction Publishers 2000 ISBN 0 7658 0760 2 Karatnycky Adrian et al Nations in transit 2001 Piscataway Transaction Publishers 2001 ISBN 0 7658 0897 8 Kelly Paul Liberalism Cambridge Polity Press 2005 ISBN 0 7456 3291 2 Kirchner Emil Liberal parties in Western Europe Cambridge Cambridge University Press 1988 ISBN 0 521 32394 0 Knoop Todd Recessions and Depressions Westport Greenwood Press 2004 ISBN 0 313 38163 1 Koerner Kirk Liberalism and its critics Oxford Taylor amp Francis 1985 ISBN 0 7099 1551 9 Leroux Robert Political Economy and Liberalism in France The Contributions of Frederic Bastiat London and New York 2011 Leroux Robert Davi M Hart eds French Liberalism in the 19th Century London and New York London 2012 Lightfoot Simon Europeanizing social democracy the rise of the Party of European Socialists New York Routledge 2005 ISBN 0 415 34803 X Losurdo Domenico Liberalism a counter history London Verso 2011 Lyons Martyn Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution New York St Martin s Press Inc 1994 ISBN 0 312 12123 7 Mackenzie G Calvin and Weisbrot Robert The liberal hour Washington and the politics of change in the 1960s New York Penguin Group 2008 ISBN 1 59420 170 6 Manent Pierre and Seigel Jerrold An Intellectual History of Liberalism Princeton Princeton University Press 1996 ISBN 0 691 02911 3 Donald Markwell John Maynard Keynes and International Relations Economic Paths to War and Peace Oxford University Press 2006 Mazower Mark Dark Continent New York Vintage Books 1998 ISBN 0 679 75704 X Monsma Stephen and Soper J Christopher The Challenge of Pluralism Church and State in Five Democracies Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield 2008 ISBN 0 7425 5417 1 Palmer R R and Joel Colton A History of the Modern World New York McGraw Hill Inc 1995 ISBN 0 07 040826 2 Perry Marvin et al Western Civilization Ideas Politics and Society Florence KY Cengage Learning 2008 ISBN 0 547 14742 2 Pierson Paul The New Politics of the Welfare State New York Oxford University Press 2001 ISBN 0 19 829756 4 Puddington Arch Freedom in the World The Annual Survey of Political Rights and Civil Liberties Lanham Rowman amp Littlefield 2007 ISBN 0 7425 5897 5 Riff Michael Dictionary of modern political ideologies Manchester Manchester University Press 1990 ISBN 0 7190 3289 X Rivlin Alice Reviving the American Dream Washington D C Brookings Institution Press 1992 ISBN 0 8157 7476 1 Ros Agustin Profits for all the cost and benefits of employee ownership New York Nova Publishers 2001 ISBN 1 59033 061 7 Routledge Paul et al The geopolitics reader New York Routledge 2006 ISBN 0 415 34148 5 Ryan Alan The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill Humanity Books 1970 ISBN 978 1 57392 404 7 Ryan Alan The Making of Modern Liberalism Princeton UP 2012 Ryan Alan On Politics A History of Political Thought From Herodotus to the Present Allen Lane 2012 ISBN 978 0 87140 465 7 Shell Jonathan The Unconquerable World Power Nonviolence and the Will of the People New York Macmillan 2004 ISBN 0 8050 4457 4 Shaw G K Keynesian Economics The Permanent Revolution Aldershot England Edward Elgar Publishing Company 1988 ISBN 1 85278 099 1 Sinclair Timothy Global governance critical concepts in political science Oxford Taylor amp Francis 2004 ISBN 0 415 27662 4 Song Robert Christianity and Liberal Society Oxford Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0 19 826933 1 Stacy Lee Mexico and the United States New York Marshall Cavendish Corporation 2002 ISBN 0 7614 7402 1 Steinberg David I Burma the State of Myanmar Georgetown University Press 2001 ISBN 0 87840 893 2 Steindl Frank Understanding Economic Recovery in the 1930s Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press 2004 ISBN 0 472 11348 8 Susser Bernard Political ideology in the modern world Upper Saddle River Allyn and Bacon 1995 ISBN 0 02 418442 X Van den Berghe Pierre The Liberal dilemma in South Africa Oxford Taylor amp Francis 1979 ISBN 0 7099 0136 4 Van Schie P G C and Voermann Gerrit The dividing line between success and failure a comparison of Liberalism in the Netherlands and Germany in the 19th and 20th Centuries Berlin LIT Verlag Berlin Hamburg Munster 2006 ISBN 3 8258 7668 3 Various authors Countries of the World amp Their Leaders Yearbook 08 Volume 2 Detroit Thomson Gale 2007 ISBN 0 7876 8108 3 Venturelli Shalini Liberalizing the European media politics regulation and the public sphere New York Oxford University Press 1998 ISBN 0 19 823379 5 Wallerstein Immanuel The Modern World System IV Centrist Liberalism trimphant 1789 1914 Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press 2011 Wempe Ben T H Green s theory of positive freedom from metaphysics to political theory Exeter Imprint Academic 2004 ISBN 0 907845 58 4 Whitfield Stephen Companion to twentieth century America Hoboken Wiley Blackwell 2004 ISBN 0 631 21100 4 Wolfe Alan The Future of Liberalism New York Random House Inc 2009 ISBN 0 307 38625 2 Worell Judith Encyclopedia of women and gender Volume I Amsterdam Elsevier 2001 ISBN 0 12 227246 3 Zvesper John Nature and liberty New York Routledge 1993 ISBN 0 415 08923Menbe https az wikipedia org w index php title Liberalizm amp oldid 6026789, wikipedia, oxu, kitab, kitabxana, axtar, tap, hersey,

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